2002: UN World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg

The objective of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was to examine the implementation of resolutions made at the conference in Rio, with a particular focus on Agenda21. Problems such as social justice, dialogue between cultures, health and development were given greater weight than at the previous summits in Stockholm (1972) and Rio de Janeiro (1992). Furthermore, a clearer link was drawn between poverty and the state of the environment.

The participants reaffirmed their desire to attain the Millennium Development Goals and to comply with the commitments made at the International Conference on Financing for Development (Monterrey Consensus) and the World Trade Organization Conference of Ministers in Doha WTO Doha Development Agenda (DDA).

At the end of the summit the global community adopted the and Johannesburg Declaration the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, JPOI. The JPOI is a non-legally-binding plan which is intended to guide government activities. By contrast, the Declaration is a set of political commitments by heads of state and government which contains obligations and implementation proposals related to sustainable development.

The Plan of Implementation, alongside voluntary and non-binding partnership initiatives involving business, non-governmental organizations, civil society or governments is intended to contribute to the meeting of basic needs (access to clean water, sufficient food, sanitation, appropriate living space, energy and healthcare provision) and the conservation of biological diversity.

To better reflect these objectives, the work and structure of the CSD, in its post-Rio Earth Summit form, were realigned and revised in specific areas.